Email this citation



Primary Sources

Archives, Libraries, and Collections

American Philosophical Society
Chester County Historical Society
Free Library of Philadelphia
Haverford College, Special Collections
Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Library Company of Philadelphia
Library of Congress (Reading Rooms: Rare Book and Special Collection,
Manuscript, Newspaper and Current Periodical, Prints and Photographs)
New York Public Library
New-York Historical Society
Peabody Essex Museum, East Asian Exports
Philadelphia Museum of Fine Arts
Smithsonian Museum of American History, Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
University of Texas at Austin, Humanities Research Center
Winterthur Library and Downs Collection
Yale University, Manuscript Collection


Alta California
American Magazine
Boston Courier
Boston Daily Advertiser
Boston Herald
Boston Post
Brooklyn Eagle
Cincinnati Commercial
Cincinnati Daily Gazette
Daily Graphic
Daily Times and Dispatch
Dollar Magazine
Dollar Newspaper
Farmers' Cabinet
Florida Trend
Hartford Courant
London Morning Chronicle
London Times
Louisville Courier-Journal
New York Clipper
New-York Commercial Advertiser
New-York Daily Advertiser
New York Evening Post
New York Herald
New York Journal of Commerce
New York Sun
New York Times
New York Tribune
New York World
Niles National Register
Philadelphia Inquirer
Philadelphia Saturday Courier
Pittsfield Herald
Poulson's American Daily Advertiser
Public Ledger
South China Morning Post
Utica Observer

Journals and Magazines

American Journal of Science and Arts
American Museum Journal
American Phrenological Journal
American Republican
American Review: A Whig Journal of Politics, Literature, Art, and Science
Appletons' Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art
Art Union
Atlantic Monthly
Century Magazine
Chinese Repository
Collier's Weekly
De Bow's Commercial Review of the South and West
Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art
Family Magazine
Fraser's Magazine
Harper's Bazaar
Harper's Weekly
Illustrated London News
Journal of American Folk-lore
Ladies' Repository
Lady's Book
Leslie's Weekly
Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review
Modern Priscilla
Museum of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art
National Magazine and Republican
New-York Mirror
North American Review
North China Herald
Southern Literary Messenger
Southern Quarterly Review
Transactions of the American Ethnological Society
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan
United States Magazine and Democratic Review
Vanity Fair


Abeel, David. Journal of a Residence in China, and the Neighboring Countries. New York: Leavitt, Lord, 1834.

Adams, Henry. Education of Henry Adams. New York: The Modern Library, 1931.

Aladdin; or, the Wonderful Lamp. London: Hardy, 1789.

Alcott, Louisa May. Eight Cousins; or, The Aunt-Hill. Cleveland: World, 1948.

Alcott, William, Tea and Coffee. Boston and New York: George W. Light, 1839.

Appleton, Nathan. Centennial Movement, 1876: A Comedy in Five Acts. Boston: Lockwood, Brooks, 1877.

As a Chinaman Saw Us: Passages from his Letters to a Friend at Home. New York: D. Appleton, 1905.

Bailey, David. "Eastward Ho!" or, Leaves from the Diary of a Centennial Pilgrim. Highland County, Ohio: Highland News Office, 1877.

Ball, B. L. Rambles in Eastern Asia, Including China and Manila. Boston: James French, 1855.

Barnsely, Edward R. History of China's Retreat: Paper Read by Edward R. Barnsley before the Bucks County Historical Society at Doylestown, Pa., May 6, 1933. Briston, Pa.: Bristol Printing Company, 1833.

Barnum, P. T. Ten Thousand Things on China and the Chinese. New York: J. S. Redfield, 1850.

———. Struggles and Triumphs; or, Forty Years' Recollections. Hartford: J. B. Burr, 1870.

———. Selected Letters of P. T. Barnum. Edited by A. H. Saxon. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Barrett, Walter. The Old Merchants of New York City. New York: Carleton, 1862.

Belasco, David. Six Plays. Boston: Little, Brown, 1929.

Bowen, Daniel. A History of Philadelphia . . . Designed as a Guide to Citizens and Strangers. Philadelphia: Daniel Owen, 1839.

Bruce, Edward C. The Century: Its Fruits and Its Festivals, Being a History and Description of the Centennial Exhibition, with a Preliminary Outline of Modern Progress. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1877.

Buckingham, J. S. The Eastern and Western States of America. 3 vols. London: Fisher, Son, 1842.

California Legislature, Senate, Special Committee on Chinese Immigration. Chinese Immigration: The Social, Moral, and Political Effect. Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1876.

Camehl, Ada Walker. The Blue-China Book Book: Early American Scenes and History Pictured in the Pottery of the Time. 1916. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1971.

Carnegie, Andrew. The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. Edited by John C. Van Dyke. 1920. Reprint, Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.

Catalogue of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Collection, at the United States International Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876. Shanghai: Inspector General of Chinese Maritime Customs, 1876.

Catalogue of the Private Library of the Late Hon. Caleb Cushing of Newburyport, Massachusetts. Boston: Sullivan Brothers, auctioneers, 1879.

Clark, Francis E. Our Journey around the World. Hartford, Conn.: A. D. Worthington, 1894.

Combe, George. Notes on the United States of North America, during a Phrenological Visit in 1838-39-40. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1841.

Comer, T. Favorite Melodies from the Grand Chinese Spectacle of Aladdin or the Wonderful Lamp; as Produced at the Boston Museum. Boston: Prentiss and Clark, 1847.

"Commonwealth v. Nathan Dunn," Reports of Some of the Criminal Cases on Primary Hearing, before Richard Vaux, Recorder of the City of Philadelphia: Together with Some Remarks on the Writ of Habeas Corpus and Forms of Proceeding in Criminal Cases. Philadelphia: T. and J. W. Johnson, 1846.

Coolidge and Wiley, The Boston Almanac for the Year 1850. Boston: B. B. Mussey, 1850.

Dale, James. What Ben Beverly Saw at the Great Exposition. Chicago: Centennial, 1876.

A Description of the Royal Chinese Junk, "Keying." London: J. Such, 1848.

Bentley, William. The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts. Salem: Essex Institute, 1905.

Downing, C. Toogood. The Fan-qui in China, 1836-1837. London: Henry Colburn, 1838.

Dunn, Nathan. "Ten Thousand Things Chinese": A Descriptive Catalogue of the Chinese Collection in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, 1839.

Earle, Alice Morse. China Collecting in America. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1892.

Farmer, Little, and Company. The Later Specimens and Reduced Price List of Printing Types. New York, 1879.

Forbes, Robert Bennet. Personal Reminiscences. Boston: Little, Brown, 1882.

——. Remarks on China and the China Trade. Boston: Samuel N. Dickinson, 1844.

The Arabian Nights. Translated by Edward Forster. London: W. Savage, 1810.

French, Harry W. Our Boys in China: The Thrilling Story of Two Young Americans, Scott and Paul Clayton Wrecked in the China Sea, on Their Return from India, with Their Strange Adventures in China. New York: Charles Dillingham, 1883.

Gilchrist, A. S. Book of Specimens of Printing Types, Cuts, Ornaments, &c., Aast at the Knickerbocker Type Foundry of A. S. Gilchrist. Albany, 1857.

[Goodrich, Samuel G.] Peter Parley's Tales about Asia. Philadelphia: Desilver Jr. and Thomas, 1833.

———. Manners and Customs of Nations. Boston: G. C. Rand, Wm. J. Reynolds, 1844.

Greele and Willis. Specimen of Printing Types and Metal Ornaments, Cast at the New England Type Foundry by Greele and Willis. Boston, 1831.

Greey, Edward. Blue Jackets; or, The Adventures of J. Thompson, A.B., among "the Heathen Chinee." Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1871.

Griffis, William Elliot. Asiatic History: China, Corea, Japan. Chautauqua Textbooks 34. New York: Phillips and Hunt, 1881.

———. China's Story in Myth, Legend, Art, and Annals. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1911.

Grocer's Companion and Merchant's Hand-Book. Boston: New England Grocer Office, 1883.

Guide to Tea Drinking. New York: Pekin Tea Company, 1845.

Hansen-Taylor, Marie and Horace E. Scudder, eds. Life and Letters of Bayard Taylor. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1885.

Harrison, Carter. A Race with the Sun. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1889.

Hawks, Francis L. Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to The China Seas and Japan, Performed in the Years 1852, 1853, and 1854, Under the Command of Commodore M. C. Perry, United States Navy. Washington, D.C.: A. O. P. Nicholson, printer, 1856.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The House of Seven Gables. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Heine, William. With Perry to Japan: A Memoir by William Heine. Translated and edited by Frederic Trautman. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.

Hints to Young Tradesmen and Maxims for Merchants. Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1838.

Hobart and Robbins. New England Type and Stereotype Foundry. Boston, circa 1850.

Hodges, Nan, ed. The Voyage of the Peacock: A Journal by Benjamin Ticknor, Naval Surgeon. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

Holt, Hamilton. The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Howland, Paul. Specimen Book of Printing Types. New Bedford, 1884.

Hughes, Sarah Forbes, ed. Letters and Recollections of John Murray Forbes. New York: Arno Press, 1981.

Hunter, W. C. The Fan Kwei at Canton before Treaty Days, 1824-1844. 1882. London: Kegan Paul, 1882. Reprint. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen, 1965.

Ingram, J. S. The Centennial Exposition, Described and Illustrated. Philadelphia: Hubbard Bros., 1876.

James Connor and Sons. Specimens of Printing Types and Ornaments, Cast by James Connor and Sons. New York, 1855.

Jenkins, Walter. Bryant Parrott Tilden of Salem, at a Chinese Dinner Party. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Johnson, L. Specimen of Printing Types and Ornaments Cast by L. Johnson. Philadelphia, 1844.

Holley, Marietta. Josiah Allen's Wife as a P.A. and P.I.: Samantha at the Centennial. Hartford, Conn.: American Publishing Company, 1877.

Keating, John. With General Grant in the East. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1879.

Kidder, D. P., ed. The Chinese; or, Conversations on the Country and People of China. Department of Rare Books, Library of Congress. New York: G. Lane and C. B. Tippett, 1846.

King, Caroline Howard. When I Lived in Salem, 1822-1866. Brattleboro, Vt.: Stephen Daye Press, 1937.

Langdon, William. "Ten Thousand Chinese Things": A Descriptive Catalogue of the Chinese Collection, Now Exhibiting at St. George's Place, Hyde Park Corner, London. London, 1842.

Laufer, Berthold . "Modern Chinese Collections in Historical Light: With Especial Reference to the American Museum's Collection Representative of Chinese Culture a Decade Ago." American Museum Journal 12 (April 1912).

Lavater, Johann Caspar. The Pocket Lavater; or, The Science of Physiognomy. New York: C. Wiley, 1829.

———. Physiognomy; or, the Corresponding Analogy between the Conformation of the Features and the Ruling Passions of the Mind. London: Thomas Tegg, 1844.

———. Essays on Physiognomy. London: William Tegg, 1869.

Li, Gui. Huan you diqiu xin lu (New account of traveling around the world). Hunan People's Publisher, 1980.

Leland, Charles. The Pidgin English Sing-Song; or, Songs and Stories in the Chinese-English Dialect. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1876.

Loines, Elma, ed. The China Trade Post-Bag of the Seth Low Family of Salem and New York. Manchester, Maine: Falmouth Publishing House, 1953.

MacKellar, Smiths, and Jordan. Print Types, Borders, Ornaments, and All Things Needful for Newspaper and Job Printing Offices Made by MacKellar, Smiths, and Jordan. Philadelphia, 1880.

Mayer, Brantz. A Nation in a Nutshell. Pamphlet, Department of Rare Books, Library of Congress. Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking, and Guilbert, 1841.

McCabe, James. The Illustrated History of the Centennial Exhibition. 1876. Reprint, Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1976.

Mills, Brothers, and Co. (New York). Catalogue of Canton Fans, Grass Cloths, and Fancy Goods Now Landing from the Ship" Howard," from Canton . . . June 5th, 1832. Boston: Childs Gallery, 1968.

Moreau De Saint-Mery, M. L. E. An Authentic Account of the Embassy of the Dutch East-India Company, to the Court of the Emperor of China, In the Years 1794 and 1795 . . . Containing a Description of Several Parts of the Chinese Empire, Unknown to Europeans; Taken from the Journal of Andr&ecute; Everard Van Braam. 2 vols. London: Lee and Hurst, 1798.

Morton, Samuel George. Crania Americana; or, A Comparative View of the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Nations. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 1839.

Niemcewicz, Julian Ursyn. Under Their Vine and Fig Tree: Travels in America in 1797-1799, 1805, with Some Further Account of Life in New Jersey. Elizabeth, N.J.: Grassmann, 1965.

Norton, Frank H. Illustrated Historical Register of the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876. New York: American News Company, 1879.

Nye, Gideon. Tea: And The Tea Trade. New York: Geo. W. Wood, 1850.

Nye, Gideon. The Morning of My Life in China: Comprising an Outline of the History of Foreign Intercourse from the Last Year of the Regime of Honorable East India Company, 1833, to the Imprisonment of the Foreign Community in 1839. (Transcript of a lecture delivered in Canton, 31 January 1873.) Canton, 1873.

Odel, George C. D. Annals of the New York Stage. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

People and Customs in Different Countries. Uncle Oliver's Books for Children. Auburn, N.Y.: Oliphant and Skinner, 1837.

People of China; or, A Summary of Chinese History. Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union, 1844.

Peter Piper's Tales about China. Albany, N.Y.: R. H. Pease, n.d.

Peters, John R., Jr. Miscellaneous Remarks upon the Government, History, Religions, Literature, Agriculture, Arts, Trades, Manners, and Customs of the Chinese: As Suggested by an Examination of the Articles Comprising the Chinese Museum. Philadelphia: G. B. Zieber, 1847.

Phelps, William Lyon. Autobiography with Letters. New York: Oxford University Press, 1939.

Planché, J. R. Extravaganzas of J. R. Planché, Esq. Edited by T. F. Dillon Crocker and Stephen Tucker. 5 vols. London: Samuel French, 1879.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. Perley's Reminiscences of Sixty Years in the National Metropolis. Philadelphia: Hubbard Brothers; New York: W. A. Houghton, 1886.

Punch's Guide to the Chinese Collection. London: Punch Office, 1844.

Shaw, Samuel. The Journals of Major Samuel Shaw, the First American Consul at Canton. Edited by Josiah Quincy. Taipei, Ch'eng-wen, 1968.

Rapid Tour around the World; or, Young Peter's Remarks to His Cousins upon the Different Nations. Amherst, Mass.: J. S. and C. Adams, 1846.

Redfield, J. W. Outlines of a New System of Physiognomy. New York: Redfield, 1848.

Robb, Alexander. Specimen of Printing-Types and Ornaments Cast by Alexander Robb. Philadelphia, 1846.

Roorbach, Orville A., ed. Bibliotheca Americana: Catalogue of American Publications, Including Reprints and Original Works, from 1820 to [January 1861]. 4 vols. New York: Peter Smith, 1939.

Sewall, John S. The Logbook of the Captain's Clerk: Adventures in the China Seas. Edited by Arthur Power Dudden. Chicago: Lakeside Press, R. R. Donnelley and Sons, 1995.

Shaw, Samuel. The Journals of Major Samuel Shaw, the First American Consul at Canton. Edited by Josiah Quincy. Taipei, Ch'eng-wen, 1968.

Shearer, F. E., ed. The Pacific Tourist: An Illustrated Guide. New York: J. R. Bowman, 1879.

Shuck, Henrietta. Scenes in China; or, Sketches of the Country, Religion, and Customs, of the Chinese. Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1853.

Silliman, Benjamin. "Mr. Dunn's Chinese Collection." American Journal of Science and Arts (January 1839).

———. Mr. Dunn's Chinese Collection in Philadelphia. Pamphlet, Department of Rare Books, Library of Congress. Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking, and Guilbert, 1841.

Sturge, Joseph. A Visit to the United States in 1841. London: Hamilton, Adams, 1842.

Tales from the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, as Related by a Mother for the Amusement of Her Children. New York: Edward Walker, 1848.

Taylor, Bayard. Views A-Foot; or, Europe Seen with Knapsack and Staff. London: Wiley and Putnam, 1847.

———. A Visit to India, China, and Japan, in the Year 1853. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1855.

———. A Visit to India, China, and Japan, in the Year 1853. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1859.

———. At Home and Abroad. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1860.

———, comp. Cyclop¾dia of Modern Travel: A Record of Adventure, Exploration, and Discovery, for the Past Fifty Years. Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, Keys, 1856.

Tiffany, Osmond, Jr. The Canton Chinese; or, The American's Sojourn in the Celestial Empire. Boston: James Monroe, 1849.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. Translated and edited by Harvey C. Mansfield and Delba Winthrop. 1835. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Twain, Mark. Mark Twain's Letters. Edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1917.

Tyng, Charles. Before the Wind: The Memoir of an American Sea Captain, 1808-1833. Edited by Susan Fels. New York: Viking Penguin, 1999.

United States Centennial Commission. Reports and Awards. Edited by Francis A. Walker. Groups 2 and 27. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1877.

Wainright, Nicholas B., ed. A Philadelphia Perspective: The Diary of Sidney George Fisher Covering the Years 1834-1871. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1967.

Walker, Francis. The World's Fair: A Critical Account. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1878.

Wells, L. T. Specimens from the Cincinnati Type Foundry. Cincinnati, 1852.

White, John T. Specimen of Modern Printing Types at the Foundry of John T. White. New York, 1839.

Williams, Frederick Wells. The Life and Letters of Samuel Wells Williams, LL.D., Missionary, Diplomatist, Sinologue. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1889.

Williams, Samuel Wells. The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c., of the Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants. 2 vols. New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1848.

Wood, William W. Sketches of China: With Illustrations from Original Drawings. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea, 1830.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Edited by Samuel Longfellow. 10 vols. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1886.

Yung, Shang Him. The Chinese Educational Mission and Its Influence. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1939.

Yung, Wing. My Life in China and America. New York: Holt, 1909.

Secondary Sources

Journal Articles

Bain, Chester. "Commodore Matthew Perry, Humphrey Marshall, and the Taiping Rebellion." Far Eastern Quarterly (May 1951).

Carpenter, Charles H. "The Chinese Collection of A. E. van Braam Houckgeest." Magazine Antiques (February 1974).

Dirlik, Arif. "Chinese History and the Question of Orientalism." In "Chinese Historiography in Comparative Perspective," edited by Axel Schneider and Susanne Weigelin-Schwiedrzik. Special issue, History and Theory 35 (December 1996).

Downs, Jacques M. "Fair Game: Exploitive Role-Myths and the American Opium Trade." Pacific Historical Review 41 (May 1972).

Godden, Geoffrey. "The Willow Pattern." Antiques Collector (June 1972).

Hawes, Dorothy. "To the Farthest Gulf: Outline of the Old China Trade." Essex Institute Historical Collections 77 (April 1941).

Hummel, Arthur. "Nathan Dunn." Quaker History 59, no. 1 (1970).

Hung, William. "Huang Tsun-Hsien's Poem 'The Closure of the Educational Mission in America.'" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 18 (June 1955).

Jenkins, Lawrence Waters. "An Old Mandarin Home." Essex Institute Historical Collections 71 (April 1935).

Katz, Daniel and Kenneth Braly. "Racial Stereotypes of One Hundred College Students." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 28 (October-December 1933).

Kuo, Ping Chia. "Canton and Salem: The Impact of Chinese Culture upon New England Life during the Post-Revolutionary Era." New England Quarterly 3 (1930).

Leath, Robert A. "'After the Chinese Taste': Chinese Export Porcelain and Chinoiserie Design in Eighteenth-Century Charleston." Historical Archeology 33, no. 3 (fall 1999).

Lee, Bill Lann. "Yung Wing and the Americanization of China." Amerasia (March 1971).

Leung, Edwin Pak-Wah. "China's Quest from the West: The Chinese Educational Mission to the United States, 1872-1881." Asian Profile 11, no. 6 (December 1983).

———. "The First Chinese College Graduates in America: Yung Wing and His Educational Experiences." Asian Profile 16, no. 5 (October 1988).

———. "The Making of the Chinese Yankees: School Life of the Chinese Educational Mission Students in New England." Asian Profile 16, no. 5 (October 1988).

Lorence, James. "Organized Business and the Myth of the China Market: The American Asiatic Association, 1898-1937." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 71 (1981).

Mahler, Jane Gaston. "Huguenots Adventuring in the Orient: Two Manigaults in China." Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina 76 (1971).

Marsh, John L. "Drama and Spectacle by the Yard: The Panorama in America." Journal of Popular Culture 10, no. 3 (winter 1976).

Neumann, William L. "Religion, Morality, and Freedom: The Ideological Background of the Perry Expedition." Pacific Historical Review (August 1954).

Sellers, Charles Coleman. "Peale's Museum and 'The New Museum Idea.'" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 124, no. 1 (November 1980).

Worthy, Edmund H., Jr. "Yung Wing in America." Pacific Historical Review (August 1965).

Wright, Conrad Edick. "Merchants and Mandarins: New York and the Early China Trade." In New York and the China Trade. Edited by David Sanctuary Howard. New York: New-York Historical Society, 1984.


Adas, Michael. Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Alderson, William T., ed. Mermaids, Mummies, and Mastodons: The Emergence of the American Museum. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums, 1992.

Aldridge, Owen. The Dragon and the Eagle: The Presence of China in the American Enlightenment. Detroit: Wayne State University, 1993.

Alexander, Edward. Museum Masters: Their Museums and Their Influence. Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History, 1983.

Altick, Richard D. The Shows of London. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1978.

Barnard, Harry. The Story of the Wedgwood Willow Pattern Plate. Hanley, England: Catalogue Printers. Josiah Wedgwood and Sons published this guide book to Wedgwood porcelain.

Beatty, Richard Croom. Bayard Taylor: Laureate of the Gilded Age. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936.

Bode, Carl. The Anatomy of American Popular Culture, 1840-1861. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959.

Bonner, Arthur. Alas! What Brought Thee Hither? The Chinese in New York, 1800-1950. Madison, N.J.: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.

Brown, Dee. The Year of the Century: 1876. New York: Scribner, 1966.

Caplan, Aaron. "Nathan Dunn's Chinese Museum." Master's thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1986.

Chen, Chang-fang. "Barbarian Paradise: Chinese Views of the United States, 1784—1911." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1985.

Christman, Margaret C. S. Adventurous Pursuits: Americans and the China Trade. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1984.

Chu, Doris. Chinese in Massachusetts: Their Experiences and Contributions. Boston: Chinese Culture Institute, 1987.

Clunas, Craig. Chinese Export Watercolours. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1984.

Conn, Peter. Pearl Buck: A Cultural Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Conn, Steven. Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876-1926. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Conner, Patrick. George Chinnery, 1774-1852: Artist of India and the China Coast. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors' Club, 1993.

Copeland, Robert. Spode's Willow Pattern and Other Designs after the Chinese. New York: Rizzoli, 1980.

Cox, Warren. The Book of Pottery and Porcelain. New York: L. Lee and Shepard; distributed by Crown, 1944.

Crossman, Carl. The China Trade: Export Paintings, Furniture, Silver, and Other Objects. Princeton, N.J.: Pyne Press, 1972.

———. The Decorative Arts of the China Trade: Paintings, Furnishings, and Exotic Curiosities. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors' Club, 1991.

Curtis, Julia B. Chinese Porcelains of the Seventeenth Century: Landscapes, Scholars' Motifs, and Narratives. New York: China Institute Gallery, 1995.

Davies, John B. Phrenology: Fad and Science: A Nineteenth-Century American Crusade. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955.

Davis, Nancy Ellen. "The American China Trade, 1784-1844: Products for the Middle Class." Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 1987.

Degler, Carl N. In Search of Human Nature: The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Dennett, Tyler. Americans in Eastern Asia: A Critical Study of the Policy of the United States with Reference to China, Japan, and Korea in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1922.

Dong, Stella. Shanghai: The Rise and Fall of a Decadent City. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.

Dulles, Foster Rhea. The Old China Trade. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1930.

Fitzsimons, Raymund. Barnum in London. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970.

Foner, Philip S., and Daniel Rosenberg. Racism, Dissent, and Asian Americans from 1850 to the Present: A Documentary History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Forbes, Crosby. Hills and Streams: Landscape Decoration on Chinese Export Blue and White Porcelain: A Loan Exhibition from the Collection of the China Trade Museum. Washington, D.C.: International Exhibition Foundation, 1982.

Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens. London: Cecil Palmer, 1928.

Fuess, Claude M. The Life of Caleb Cushing. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1923.

Goetzmann, William H. New Lands, New Men: America and the Second Great Age of Discovery. New York: Penguin, 1986.

Goetzmann, William H., and William N. Goetzmann. The West of the Imagination. New York: Norton, 1986.

Goldstein, Jonathan. Philadelphia and the China Trade, 1682-1846: Commercial, Cultural, and Attitudinal Effects. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978.

Graham, John. Lavater's Essays on Physiognomy: A Study in the History of Ideas. Berne: Peter Lang, 1979.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Greenhalgh, Paul. Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions and World's Fairs, 1851-1931. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1988.

Gyory, Andrew. Closing the Gate: Race, Politics, and the Chinese Exclusion Act Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Haller, John S. Outcasts from Evolution: Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority, 1859-1900. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.

Hao, Yen-p'ing. "Chinese Teas to America—A Synopsis." In America's China Trade in Historical Perspective: The Chinese and American Performance. Edited by Ernest R. May and John King Fairbank. Cambridge: Committee on American-East Asian Relations of the Department of History in collaboration with the Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University; distributed by Harvard University Press, 1986.

Harris, Neil. Humbug: The Art of P. T. Barnum. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.

———. "All the World a Melting Pot? Japan at American Fairs, 1876-1904." In Mutual Images: Essays in American-Japanese Relations. Edited by Akira Iriye. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1975.

Hart, Robert. The I. G. in Peking: Letters of Robert Hart, Chinese Maritime Customs, 1868-1907. Edited by John King Fairbank, Katherine Frost Bruner, and Elizabeth MacLeod Matheson. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1975.

Hevia, James L. Cherishing Men from Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995.

Hindle, Brooke. "The Transfer of Technology and American Industrial Fairs to 1853." In International Congress on the History of Sciences, Proceedings, Fourteenth International Congress for the History of Science. Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1974.

Honour, Hugh. Chinoiserie: The Vision of Cathay. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1961.

Hornung, Clarence P., and Fridolph Johnson. Two Hundred Years of American Graphic Art: A Retrospective Survey of the Printing Arts and Advertising since the Colonial Period. New York: George Braziller, 1976.

Hudson, Frederic. Journalism in the United States, from 1690 to 1872. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1872.

Hume, Ivor Noël. Pottery and Porcelain in Colonial Williamsburg's Archaeological Collections. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg, 1969.

Isaacs, Harold R. Images of Asia: American Views of China and India. New York: Capricorn Books, 1962.

Jiang, Qian. "Samuel Wells Williams and the Attitudes of U.S. Protestant Missionaries toward the Opium Trade and the Opening of China, 1830-1860." Master's thesis, University of Toledo, 1992.

Johnson, Linda Cooke. Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port, 1074-1858. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Kaiser, Andrew T. "S. Wells Williams: Early Protestant Missions in China." Master's thesis, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, 1995.

Kastner, Joseph. A Species of Eternity. New York: Knopf, 1977.

Keswick, Maggie. The Chinese Garden: History, Art, and Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1978.

King, H. H. A Research Guide to China-Coast Newspapers, 1822-1911. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Research Center, 1965.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. China Men. New York: Vintage Books, 1977.

Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr., et al. P. T. Barnum: America's Greatest Showman. New York: Knopf, 1995.

La Fargue, Thomas. China's First Hundred. Pullman: State College of Washington, 1942.

Layton, Thomas. The Voyage of the "Frolic": New England Merchants in the Opium Trade. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Lazich, Michael C. E. C. Bridgman (1801-1861), America's First Missionary to China. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2000.

Lee, Jean Gordon. Philadelphians and the China Trade, 1784-1844. Philadelphia Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1984.

Lee, Robert G. Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.

Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin: A Genetic Text. Edited by J. A. Leo Lemay and P. M. Zall. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1981.

Lo, Hsiang-Lin. "Portrait of a Chinese Diplomat of the Last Manchu Emperors Sir Chentung Liang Cheng." In Chinese Historical Society of America, The Life, Influence, and the Role of the Chinese in the United States, 1776-1960: Proceedings, Papers of the National Conference Held at the University of San Francisco July 10, 11, 12, 1975. San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1976.

Macphereson, Kerrie L. A Wilderness of Marshes: The Origins of Public Health in Shanghai, 1843-1893. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Malefijt, Annemarie de Waal. Images of Man: A History of Anthropological Thought. New York: Knopf, 1974.

Margolin, Victor, Ira Brichta, and Vivian Brichta. The Promise and the Product: Two Hundred Years of American Advertising Posters. New York: Macmillan, 1979.

McCauley, Edward Yorke. With Perry in Japan: The Diary of Edward Yorke McCauley. Edited by Allan B. Cole. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1942.

McDougall, Walter A. Let the Sea Make a Noise—: A History of the North Pacific from Magellan to MacArthur. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

Meserve, Walter J. Heralds of Promise: The Drama of the American People during the Age of Jackson, 1829-1849. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Miller, Stuart Creighton. The Unwelcome Immigrant: The American Image of the Chinese, 1785-1882. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

Moy, James S. Marginal Sights: Staging the Chinese in America. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1993.

Nicolai, Richard R. Centennial Philadelphia. Bryn Mawr, Pa.: Bryn Mawr Press, 1976.

Oettrermann, Stephan. The Panorama: History of a Mass Medium. Translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider. New York: Zone Books, 1997.

Perry, John Curtis. Facing West: Americans and the Opening of the Pacific. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.

Pratt, Mary Louis. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London: Routledge, 1992.

Quintner, David. Willow! Solving the Mystery of Our Two-Hundred-Yyear Love Affair with the Willow Pattern. Burnstown, Ontario: General Store Publishing House, 1997.

Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.

Rhoads, Edward J. M. Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.

Riddle, Ronald. "The Cantonese Opera: A Chapter in Chinese-American History." In Chinese Historical Society of America, The Life, Influence, and the Role of the Chinese in the United States, 1776-1960: Proceedings, Papers of the National Conference held at the University of San Francisco, July 10, 11, 12, 1975. San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1976.

Rowe, William T. Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, 1796-1889. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984.

Rydell, Robert W. All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon, 1978.

Sawin, Mark H. Metzler. "Raising Kane: The Creation and Consequences of Fame in Antebellum America; or, The thrilling and Tragic Narrative of Elisha Kent Kane and His Transformation into Dr. Kane, the Hero of the Romantic Age." Ph.D. diss., University of Texas at Austin, 2001.

Saxon, A. H. P. T. Barnum: The Legend and the Man. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.

Schudson, Michael. Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. New York: Basic Books, 1978.

Seaburg, Carl, and Stanley Patterson. Merchant Prince of Boston, Colonel T. H. Perkins, 1764-1854. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1971.

Sellers, Charles Coleman. Mr. Peale's Museum. New York: Norton, 1980.

Sirˇn, Osvald. Gardens of China. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1949.

Slosson, Annie Trumbull. The China Hunters Club, by the Youngest Member. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1878.

Smyth, Albert. Bayard Taylor. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1896.

Spence, Jonathan D. The Chan's Great Continent: China in Western Minds. New York: Norton, 1998.

———. The Search for Modern China. New York: Norton, 1990.

Stanton, William. The Leopard's Spots: Scientific Attitudes toward Race in America, 1815-1859. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.

Stocking, George W. Victorian Anthropology. London: Collier Macmillan, 1987.

———, ed. The Shaping of American Anthropology, 1883-1911: A Franz Boas Reader. New York: Basic Books, 1974.

Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989.

Taylor, Bayard. Selected Letters of Bayard Taylor. Edited by Paul C. Wermuth. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1997.

Tchen, John Kuo Wei. New York before Chinatown: Orientalism and the Shaping of American Culture, 1776-1882. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Thill, Joan Kerr Facey. "A Delawarean in the Celestial Empire: John Richardson Latimer and the China Trade." Master's thesis, University of Delaware, 1973.

Trachtenberg, Alan. The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982.

Trowbridge, Thomas R., ed. "The Diary of Mr. Ebeneezer Townsend, Jr." Papers of the New Haven Historical Society. Vol. 4. New Haven, 1888.

Tsu, Andrew Yu-yue. "The Use of Leisure Time among the Chinese Immigrants of the New York City." Master's thesis, Columbia University, 1910.

Tuan, Yi-fu. Escapism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Twain, Mark. Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War. Edited by Jim Zwick. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1992.

Wakeman, Frederic. Strangers at the Gate: Social Disorder in South China, 1839-1861. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

Walsh, William. The Rise and Decline of the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company. Secaucus, N.J.: Lyle Stuart, 1986.

Warner, John. Tingqua: Paintings from His Studio. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Museum of Art, 1976.

Wermuth, Paul C. Bayard Taylor. New York: Twayne, 1973.

Whitehill, Walter Muir. The East India Marine Society and the Peabody Museum of Salem: A Sesquicentennial History. Salem, Mass.: Peabody Museum, 1949.

Wiley, Peter Booth. Yankees in the Land of the Gods: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan. New York: Viking, 1990.

Williams, Dave, ed. The Chinese Othe,r 1850-1912: An Anthology of Plays. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1997.

Wilson, Arthur Herman. A History of the Philadelphia Theatre, 1835-1855. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1935.

Wines, E. C. Hints on a System of Popular Education. Philadelphia: Hogan and Thompson, 1838.

———. A Peep at China in Mr. Dunn's Chinese Collection. Philadelphia: Ashmead, 1839.

Wolanin, Barbara. Constantino Brumidi: Artist of the Capitol. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Knopf, 1992.

Zweig, Paul. Walt Whitman: The Making of the Poet. New York: Basic Books, 1984.


The Romance of China: Excursions to China in U.S. Culture: 1776-1876



1. Xanadu
2. Romantic Domesticity
3. The China Effect
4. China in Miniature
5. Floating Ethnology
6. God's China
7. Fruits of Diplomacy
8. Bayard Taylor's Asia
9. Exposition of 1876