“I Saw a Nightmare…”
Doing Violence to Memory: The Soweto Uprising, June 16, 1976
by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick



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Newspapers and Magazines

Rand Daily Mail
Financial Mail
Life: The Observer Magazine
The Star
The World
The Weekend World
Weekly Mail and Guardian
Sechaba: Official Organ of the African National Congress South Africa

Government Publications and Archives

House of Assembly. Questions and Replies. Hansard, 1976
_______. Questions and Replies. Hansard, 1977.
_______. Questions and Replies. Hansard, 1978.
_______. Questions and Replies. Hansard, 1979.
_______. Questions and Replies. Hansard, 1980.

_______. Debates. Hansard, 1976.
_______. Debates. Hansard, 1977.
_______. Debates. Hansard, 1978.
_______. Debates. Hansard, 1979.
_______. Debates. Hansard, 1980.

Central Archives Depot / Sentrale Argiefbewaarplek (SAB). State Archives Service. Pretoria: K345. Archives of the Commission of Inquiry into the Riots in Soweto and Elsewhere, 1976-1978.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Human Rights Violations, Submissions—Questions and Answers. Transcript available at Truth and Reconciliation Commission, www.doj.gov.za (Human Rights Violations, Hearings and Submissions; Hearing Transcripts; Johannesburg; Victim Hearings).

Court Cases

State Archives Service, Pretoria, State v. Twala and Ten Others, case K/P 281/79, Transvaal Provincial Division (TPD) of the Supreme Court of South Africa.

State Archives Service, Pretoria, civil-court case WLD 6857/77, West Rand Bantu Administration v. Santam (WRAB v. Santam).

Historical Papers Collection, University of the Witwatersrand, Cullen Library.


Two Decades … Still, June 16. Produced by Loli Repanis, directed by Khalo Carlo Matabane, for SABCTV. Aired 16 June 1996.


Bizos, George. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, May 1995.

Cillié, Petrus M. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, April 1995.

Khumalo Emmanuel. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, June, 1993.

Lebelo, Steve. Conversation with Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, June-August 1992.

Lekganyane, Helen. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, November 1994.

Maoto, Nkosana. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Notes. October 1998.

Mashaba, Sam. Interview conducted by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, September 1993.

Mekgwe, Johannes. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, May, 1995.

Mofokeng, Santu. Conversations with Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. July 1994.

Mokae, Phestus. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, June 1992.

Mokganyetsi, Lilli. Interview conducted by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, June 1993, December 1993, September 1994.

Mokoena, Steve. Conversation with Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, September 1992.

Mokwena, Precious. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, May 1995.

Molotsi, Zakes. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, May, 1995.

Morobe, Murphy. Interview by John Robbie. Radio 702 Talk Radio16, June 1993.

Mulaudzi, Maanda. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. February 1994, 29 October 1998.

Sebake, Edna. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, June 1993, September 1994.

Suzman, Helen. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, April 1995.

Tloteng, Tabo. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, July 1994.

Tshetlo, Patience. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, June 1995.

Twala, Vuka. Interview by Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Tape recording. Johannesburg, November 1994.

Yutar, Percy. Conversation with Helena Pohlandt-McCormick. Johannesburg, April 1995.

Radio 702 Talk Radio. Interviewer: John Robbie. Anniversary of June 16, 1976: 1993, 1994, 1995.

Website links

African National Congress

Underground Documents:

United Nations in the Struggle Against Apartheid

Oliver Tambo-Statement At The Plenary Meeting Of The United Nations General Assembly, New York, October 26, 1976:

Oliver Tambo-Render South Africa Ungovernable! Message Of The National Executive Committee Of The African National Congress On The 73rd Anniversary Of Anc, January 8, 1985


Sechaba, Volume 11 -- How June 16 Demo was planned - Tebello Motapanyane

Sechaba, 1977, Volume 11 Second Quarter,

Digital Imaging Project of South Africa (DISA)

National Archives and Records Service of South Africa (NARS):

Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC):

South African History Online

Charles Molele, "The enigma behind June 16," Sunday Times